Daech expliqué à moi-même

November 23, 2015 § 6 Comments

Comme toute la France, j’essaye encore de comprendre ce qui s’est passé le 13 novembre. Non pas qu’il s’agisse d’une réelle surprise, mais quand même. Contrairement à quelques charlatans à la mode, je ne prétendrai pas avoir réussi à comprendre, mais voici quelques notes que j’ai prises au fur et à mesure de mes lectures et réflexions.

20151123_123209

Daech et le cynisme

  • Daech est initialement une organisation irakienne. Les cadres de Daech sont des anciens cadres Baasistes, c’est-à-dire des hommes de main du régime de Saddam Hussein (source : Courrier International, numéro spécial, 19 novembre 2015).
  • De mémoire, le régime de Saddam Hussein était très occidentalisé, plus ou moins fasciste et totalement laïc. Il n’a cessé d’être allié avec les USA que lorsqu’il a envahi le Koweït, pour des raisons purement économiques et stratégiques.
  • Les frontières revendiquées par Daech coïncident avec les puits de pétrole de la région beaucoup plus qu’avec les lieux saints.
    • Ce qui précède me fait réfléchir. Les cadres de Daech sont-ils vraiment des islamistes ou l’Islam n’est-il pour eux qu’un outil de pouvoir ?
  • Au moins en Syrie, Daech recrute presque uniquement des étrangers. Apparemment, Daech n’arrive pas à recruter les populations locales. Apparemment, les étrangers sont aussi plus faciles à contrôler, puisqu’ils sont coupés de leur famille et de leurs proches et qu’ils ont du mal à retourner chez eux (source : CI).
  • En Syrie et en Irak, Daech est en guerre contre tout le monde, qu’il s’agisse de groupes non-religieux (le régime de Bachar el Assad, l’Armée Syrienne Libre, les Unités de Protection du Peuple, la Coalition Arabe Syrienne), chrétiens (le Conseil Militaire Syriaque) ou islamistes (le Hezbollah, le Front Islamique, l’Ansar el-Charia – proche d’Al-Qaïda). Contrairement à Daech, ces groupes sont constitués essentiellement de populations locales.
  • Daech semble gérer ses territoires comme des territoires occupés, avec une police d’occupation, des collaborateurs, etc. (source : New York Times).
    • Vu comme cela, et vu de loin, je trouve que Daech ressemble plus à une force extérieure, qui vise à imposer une idéologie importée, à piller les ressources naturelles et historiques, sans compter l’esclavage. Bref, j’aurais tendance à décrire Daech comme une forme de colonialisme.

Daech et ses voisins

  • Daech se présente comme la rébellion contre le régime Syrien de Bachar el Assad. Comme mentionné plus haut, Daech est en fait en guerre contre tout le monde, à commencer par les autres rebelles (source : Wikipedia).
  • Le régime de Bachar el Assad combat les autres groupes rebelles de toutes ses forces, mais aurait jusqu’ici plutôt laissé Daech tranquille, car Daech est un ennemi utile : il pratique et encourage la torture et le viol, la violence aveugle contre les populations civiles, la destruction de monuments historiques, le terrorisme contre les régimes occidentaux, et fait tout son possible pour que le monde entier soit au courant. En termes de communication, Daech est donc ce qui est arrivé de mieux au régime depuis que Bachar el Assad est au pouvoir. (source : Je n’arrive plus à retrouver)
  • En ce moment, l’ennemi militaire principal de Daech est le YPG (Unités de Protection du Peuple), constituées essentiellement de populations locales kurdes. Traditionnellement, les Kurdes sont plutôt musulmans, mais le YPG de gauche, affirme l’égalité hommes-femmes, et propose un régime démocratique fédéral et laïc.
  • Si le YPG gagne, les Kurdes auront certainement un pays indépendant, et réclameront certainement le rattachement du Kurdistan Turc. La Turquie, qui est pourtant alliée avec Israël contre le régime de Bachar el Assad, lutte donc contre le YPG.
  • Le YPG est allié contre Daech avec le Conseil Militaire Syriaque (populations locales chrétiennes, dont certaines ont été récemment chassées de Turquie), la Coalition Arabe Syrienne (populations locales arabes) et la Brigade Internationale de Libération.
  • Daech considère qu’il faut détruire totalement la population yézidi (kurdes), car elle pratique une religion pré-islamique ou hétérodoxe islamique (selon les sources). Apparemment, la torture et l’esclavage sexuel sont une manière acceptable de détruire les yézidi. (source : propagande Daech).

Daech et le monde

  • Le régime Iranien considère Daech comme un ennemi, créé de toutes pièces par l’Occident pour lutter contre le régime Syrien (source : CI).
  • Al-Qaïda, organisation qui prône pourtant un califat, rejette Daech (source : Le Monde)
  • Les Frères Musulmans, qu’on ne peut accuser ni, d’être laïcs ni d’être pacifistes, décrivent Daech comme “Un groupe connu par ses atrocités”.
  • Le Grand Mufti d’Arabie Saoudite décrit Daech comme “l’ennemi numéro 1 de l’Islam” (source : Libération).
  • Une douzaine de groupes Jihadistes à travers le monde se seraient ralliés à Daech (source : Wikipedia).
  • Apparemment, les imams de France considèrent l’Islam de Daech non pas comme une interprétation extrémiste de l’Islam, mais plutôt comme une religion totalement distincte (source : des gens qui fréquentent des mosquées).
  • La seule intervention de Daech dans le conflit Israélo-Palestinien a consisté à attaquer le Hamas et le Jihad Islamique Palestinien, bref des musulmans (source : ma mémoire, confirmée par Wikipedia).
  • À ma connaissance, aucune intervention de Daech dans le monde n’a visé à protéger ou aider des musulmans locaux  (source : ma mémoire, confirmée par Wikipedia).

Daech et le recrutement

  • Au moins en France, les recruteurs de Daech ont pour instructions d’éviter les mosquées. Apparemment, leur interprétation du Coran est en contradiction totale avec les interprétations modernes, et n’importe quel imam est capable de le démontrer aux fidèles. En plus de cela, la plupart des imams français sont républicains, et risqueraient d’appeler immédiatement la police (source : je n’arrive pas à retrouver).
  • Daech contrôle les images qui sortent de son territoire. Daech est le seul régime qui a tendance à exagérer ses propres exactions et à en faire un argument de recrutement. (source : CI)
    • Mon intuition est que Daech cherche à surfer sur des fantasmes de violence dans le style des jeux vidéos et des productions hollywoodiennes.

Conclusions

Pas de conclusions pour le moment. Je revisiterai ce billet si j’en atteins.

En attendant, méfions-nous des charlatans.

Re-dreaming Firefox (3): Identities

June 5, 2015 § 8 Comments

Gerv’s recent post on the Jeeves Test got me thinking of the Firefox of my dreams. So I decided to write down a few ideas on how I would like to experience the web. Today: Identities. Let me emphasise that the features described in this blog post do not exist.

Sacha has a Facebook account, plus two Gmail accounts and one Microsoft Live identity. Sacha is also present on Twitter, both with a personal account, and as the current owner of his company’s account. Sacha also has an account on his bank, another one on Paypal, and one on Amazon. With any browser other than Firefox, Sacha’s online life would be a bit complicated.

For one thing, Sacha is logged to several of these accounts most of the time. Sacha has been told that this makes him easy to track, not just when he’s on Facebook, but also when he visits blogs, or news sites, or even shopping sites, but really, who has time to log off from any account? With any other browser, or with an older version of Firefox, Sacha would have no online privacy. Fortunately, Sacha is using Firefox, which has grown pretty good at handling identities.

Indeed, Firefox knows the difference between Facebook’s (and Google’s, etc.) main sites, for which Sacha may need to be logged, and the tracking devices installed on other sites through ads, or through the Like button (and Google +1, etc.), which are pure nuisances. So, even when Sacha is logged on Facebook, his identity remains hidden from the tracking devices. To put it differently, Sacha is logged to Facebook only on Facebook tabs, and only while he’s using Facebook in these tabs. And since Sacha has two GMail accounts, his logging on each account doesn’t interact with the other account. This feature is good not only for privacy, but also for security, as it considerably mitigates the danger of Cross-Site Scripting attacks. Conversely, if a third-party website uses Facebook as an identity provider, Firefox can detect this automatically, and handle the log-in.

Privacy doesn’t stop there. Firefox has a database of Terms of Service for most websites. Whenever Firefox detects that Sacha is entering his e-mail address, or his phone number, or his physical address, Firefox can tell Sacha if he’s signing up for spam or telemarketing – and take measures to avoid it. If Sacha is signing up for spam, Firefox can automatically create an e-mail alias specific to this website, valid either for a few days, or forever. If Sacha has a provider of phone aliases, Firefox can similarly create a phone alias specific to the website, valid either for a few days, or forever. Similarly, if Sacha’s bank offers temporary credit card numbers, Firefox can automatically create a single-transaction credit card number.

Firefox offers an Identity Panel (if we release this feature, it will, of course, be called Persona) that lets Sacha find out exactly which site is linked to which identity, and grant or revoke authorizations to log-in automatically when visiting such sites, as well as log in or out from a single place. In effect, this behaves as a Internet-wide Single Sign On across identities. With a little help, Firefox can even be taught about lesser known identity providers, such as Sacha’s company’s Single Sign On, and handle them from the same panel. That Identity Panel also keeps track of e-mail aliases, and can be used to revoke spam- and telemarketing-inducing aliases in just two clicks.

Also, security has improved a lot. Firefox can automatically generate strong passwords – it even has a database of sites which accept accept passphrases, or are restricted to 8 characters, etc. Firefox can also detect when Sacha uses the same password on two unrelated sites, and explain him why this is a bad idea. Since Firefox can safely and securely share passwords with other devices and back them up into the cloud, or to encrypted QR Codes that Sacha can safely keep in his wallet, Sacha doesn’t even need to see passwords. Since Firefox handles the passwords, it can download every day a list of websites that are known to have been hacked, and use it to change passwords semi-automatically if necessary.

Security doesn’t stop there. The Identity Panel knows not only about passwords and identity providers, but also about the kind of information that Sacha has provided to each website. This includes Sacha’s e-mail address and physical address, Sacha’s phone number, and also Sacha’s credit card number. So when Firefox finds out that a website to which Sacha subscribes has been hacked, Sacha is informed immediately of the risks. This extends to less material information, such as Sacha’s personal blog of vacation pictures, which Sacha needs to check immediately to find out whether they have been defaced.

What now?

I would like to browse with this Firefox. Would you?

Je Suis Charlie, but I Am Vigilant

January 13, 2015 § 2 Comments

(This text has initially been written for the French-speaking Mozilla Community. Most members of the community haven’t had a chance to review or sign it yet.)

20150108_144913

I am Charlie. Some of us grew up with Cabu’s children cartoons or Wolinkski’s willies. Some of us laughed at Charb’s cover pages, others much less, and yet others had never even heard of Charlie Hebdo. Despite our differences, from the bottom of our heart, we are with those who defend Free Speech, the right to discuss, draw, make laugh or cringe.

I am a Cop. Some among us work directly with law enforcement, or ensure the online safety of individuals or organizations. Some of us make their voice heard when legal or executive powers around the world decide that security, convenience or economic interests matter more than the rights of users. All, we salute the police officers murdered or wounded these last few days as they attempted to save innocents.

I am Jew, or Muslim, or Anything else. Some among us are Jew, or Muslim, or Christian, or anything else, and, frankly, most of us don’t care who is what. All, we are horrified that, in the 21st century, extremists may still decide to murder innocents, solely because they might be Jew, and because they had decided to go the grocery store. All, we are appalled that, in the 21st century, extremists may still decide to attack innocents, just because they might be Muslems, through threats, physical violence or through their places of cult. All, we are shocked whenever opportunists praise murders or violence, or call for hatred or the ones or the others.

I am Collateral. Before we are the Mozilla Community, we are a community of individuals. Any one of us could have been at the front desk of this building, or on the path of that car, hostage or collateral kill of the assassins. Our minute of silence is for the anonymous ones, too.

I am Vigilant. Some of us believe that strong and immediate measures must be taken. Others prefer to wait until the emotion has passed before we can think of an appropriate response. All, we wait to see how the attacks of January 7th and January 9th 2015 will change our society. All, we remain vigilant, to make sure that, on top of the blood of the dead, our society does not choose to sacrifice Human Rights, Free Speech and Privacy, in the name of a securitarian ideology or opportunistic economical interests.

I am the French-speaking Mozilla Community.


Text edited by myself. List of signatures of the French version.

Wouldn’t it be nice?

April 2, 2014 § 2 Comments

Wouldn’t it be nice if Mozilla were a political party, with a single stance, a single state of mind and a single opinion?

Wouldn’t it be nice if people could decide to vote for or against Mozilla based on a single opinion of its leader?

But that’s not the case. We are Mozilla. We have thousands of different voices. We agree that users must be defended on the web. We fight for privacy and for freedom of speech and for education. On everything else, we might disagree, but that’s ok. We are Mozilla. We won’t let that stop us.

So please don’t ask us to exclude one of our own, no matter how much you disagree with his positions. We are Mozilla. We always disagree on most things that are not our mission. And we move forward, together.

Of course, if you want to change Mozilla, how we work and what we think, there is one way to do it. You can join us. Don’t worry, you don’t have to agree with us on much.

Just a question regarding ACTA

February 10, 2012 § Leave a comment

I am currently reading the official text of ACTA. This international treaty against brand name abuse, forgery and illicit data sharing has been negotiated for two and a half years being a veil of absolute secrecy. Since early December, it is now finally public.

Reading it, I wonder. Here is article 11, for instance:

« Without prejudice to its law governing privilege, the protection of confidentiality of information sources, or the processing of personal data, each Party [= each country] shall provide that, in civil judicial proceedings concerning the enforcement of intellectual property rights, its judicial authorities have the authority, upon a justified request of the right holder, to order the infringer or, in the alternative, the alleged infringer, to provide to the right holder or to the judicial authorities, at least for the purpose of collecting evidence, relevant information as provided for in its applicable laws and regulations that the infringer or alleged infringer possesses or controls. Such information may include information regarding any person involved in any aspect of the infringement or alleged infringement and regarding the means of production or the channels of distribution of the infringing or allegedly infringing goods or services, including the identification of third persons alleged to be involved in the production and distribution of such goods or services and of their channels of distribution. »

Do I understand correctly that, to comply with such orders:

  • a library must keep watch over its uers, so as to be able to identify those who might be implied in alleged infringements?
  • a university must keep watch over its professors, so as to be able to identify those who might be implied in distributing documents and exceeding fair use?
  • … or a highschool? or a kindergarten?
  • … and no element of proof is required from the right holder?

Have I mentioned that I am a little worried by ACTA?

Une question à propos d’ACTA

February 10, 2012 § 2 Comments

J’ai sous les yeux le texte officiel d’ACTA. Ce traité international contre (en vrac) l’exploitation illicite de marques, le faux et usage de faux et le partage de données sans autorisation sur Internet, après avoir été négocié en toute confidentialité par la Commission Européenne, est enfin public, et doit passer devant le Parlement Européen en mai 2012.

Du coup, je lis l’article 11 et je m’interroge :

« Without prejudice to its law governing privilege, the protection of confidentiality of information sources, or the processing of personal data, each Party [= chaque pays] shall provide that, in civil judicial proceedings concerning the enforcement of intellectual property rights, its judicial authorities have the authority, upon a justified request of the right holder, to order the infringer or, in the alternative, the alleged infringer, to provide to the right holder or to the judicial authorities, at least for the purpose of collecting evidence, relevant information as provided for in its applicable laws and regulations that the infringer or alleged infringer possesses or controls. Such information may include information regarding any person involved in any aspect of the infringement or alleged infringement and regarding the means of production or the channels of distribution of the infringing or allegedly infringing goods or services, including the identification of third persons alleged to be involved in the production and distribution of such goods or services and of their channels of distribution. »

Ai-je bien compris que, pour pouvoir obéir à ce type d’injonction :

  • une bibliothèque doit surveiller ses empruntants, pour pouvoir identifier ceux qui pourraient être impliqués dans de la photocopie de livres ?
  • une université doit surveiller ses enseignants, pour pouvoir identifier ceux qui pourraient distribuer des polycopiés sans autorisation ?
  • … ou un lycée, un collège, une maternelle ?
  • … ainsi que les intervenants invités le temps d’un cours ou d’un séminaire ?
  • … le tout sur simple soupçon ?

Ai-je mentionné qu’ACTA m’inquiète quelque peu ?

Resist SOPA, HADOPI, Censorship…

January 18, 2012 § Leave a comment

Today, this blog is black.

Today is an international day of fighting against web censorship.

Against SOPA (in the US), Hadopi (in France), and all the bills that assume that freedom of expression and freedom of information can be cast aside whenever they come in the way of profit.

Learn more.

Image from Ars Technica: http://arstechnica.com/staff/palatine/2012/01/sopa-resistance-day-begins-at-ars.ars

Where Am I?

You are currently browsing the Société category at Il y a du thé renversé au bord de la table.