Re-dreaming Firefox (3): Identities

June 5, 2015 § 8 Comments

Gerv’s recent post on the Jeeves Test got me thinking of the Firefox of my dreams. So I decided to write down a few ideas on how I would like to experience the web. Today: Identities. Let me emphasise that the features described in this blog post do not exist.

Sacha has a Facebook account, plus two Gmail accounts and one Microsoft Live identity. Sacha is also present on Twitter, both with a personal account, and as the current owner of his company’s account. Sacha also has an account on his bank, another one on Paypal, and one on Amazon. With any browser other than Firefox, Sacha’s online life would be a bit complicated.

For one thing, Sacha is logged to several of these accounts most of the time. Sacha has been told that this makes him easy to track, not just when he’s on Facebook, but also when he visits blogs, or news sites, or even shopping sites, but really, who has time to log off from any account? With any other browser, or with an older version of Firefox, Sacha would have no online privacy. Fortunately, Sacha is using Firefox, which has grown pretty good at handling identities.

Indeed, Firefox knows the difference between Facebook’s (and Google’s, etc.) main sites, for which Sacha may need to be logged, and the tracking devices installed on other sites through ads, or through the Like button (and Google +1, etc.), which are pure nuisances. So, even when Sacha is logged on Facebook, his identity remains hidden from the tracking devices. To put it differently, Sacha is logged to Facebook only on Facebook tabs, and only while he’s using Facebook in these tabs. And since Sacha has two GMail accounts, his logging on each account doesn’t interact with the other account. This feature is good not only for privacy, but also for security, as it considerably mitigates the danger of Cross-Site Scripting attacks. Conversely, if a third-party website uses Facebook as an identity provider, Firefox can detect this automatically, and handle the log-in.

Privacy doesn’t stop there. Firefox has a database of Terms of Service for most websites. Whenever Firefox detects that Sacha is entering his e-mail address, or his phone number, or his physical address, Firefox can tell Sacha if he’s signing up for spam or telemarketing – and take measures to avoid it. If Sacha is signing up for spam, Firefox can automatically create an e-mail alias specific to this website, valid either for a few days, or forever. If Sacha has a provider of phone aliases, Firefox can similarly create a phone alias specific to the website, valid either for a few days, or forever. Similarly, if Sacha’s bank offers temporary credit card numbers, Firefox can automatically create a single-transaction credit card number.

Firefox offers an Identity Panel (if we release this feature, it will, of course, be called Persona) that lets Sacha find out exactly which site is linked to which identity, and grant or revoke authorizations to log-in automatically when visiting such sites, as well as log in or out from a single place. In effect, this behaves as a Internet-wide Single Sign On across identities. With a little help, Firefox can even be taught about lesser known identity providers, such as Sacha’s company’s Single Sign On, and handle them from the same panel. That Identity Panel also keeps track of e-mail aliases, and can be used to revoke spam- and telemarketing-inducing aliases in just two clicks.

Also, security has improved a lot. Firefox can automatically generate strong passwords – it even has a database of sites which accept accept passphrases, or are restricted to 8 characters, etc. Firefox can also detect when Sacha uses the same password on two unrelated sites, and explain him why this is a bad idea. Since Firefox can safely and securely share passwords with other devices and back them up into the cloud, or to encrypted QR Codes that Sacha can safely keep in his wallet, Sacha doesn’t even need to see passwords. Since Firefox handles the passwords, it can download every day a list of websites that are known to have been hacked, and use it to change passwords semi-automatically if necessary.

Security doesn’t stop there. The Identity Panel knows not only about passwords and identity providers, but also about the kind of information that Sacha has provided to each website. This includes Sacha’s e-mail address and physical address, Sacha’s phone number, and also Sacha’s credit card number. So when Firefox finds out that a website to which Sacha subscribes has been hacked, Sacha is informed immediately of the risks. This extends to less material information, such as Sacha’s personal blog of vacation pictures, which Sacha needs to check immediately to find out whether they have been defaced.

What now?

I would like to browse with this Firefox. Would you?

Re-dreaming Firefox (2): Beyond Bookmarks

June 3, 2015 § 17 Comments

Gerv’s recent post on the Jeeves Test got me thinking of the Firefox of my dreams. So I decided to write down a few ideas on how I would like to experience the web. Today: Beyond Bookmarks. Let me emphasize that the features described in this blog post do not exist.

« Look, here is an interesting website. I want to read that content (or watch that video, or play that game), just not immediately. » So, what am I going to do to remember that I wish to read it later:

  1. Bookmark it?
  2. Save it to disk?
  3. Pocket it?
  4. Remember that I saw it and find it in my history later?
  5. Remember that I saw it and find it in my Awesome Bar later?
  6. Hope that it shows up in the New Tab page?
  7. Open a tab?
  8. Install the Open Web App for that website?
  9. Open a tab and put that tab in a tab group?

Wow, that’s 9 ways of fulfilling the same task. Having so many ways of doing the same thing is not a very good sign, so let’s see if we can find a way to unify a few of these abstractions into something more generic and powerful.

Bookmarking is saving is reading later

What are the differences between Bookmarking and Saving?

  1. Bookmarking keeps a URL, while Saving keeps a snapshot.
  2. Bookmarks can be used only from within the browser, while Saved files can be used only from without.

Merging these two features is actually quite easy. Let’s introduce a new button, the Awesome Bookmarks which will serve as a replacement for both the Bookmark button and Save As.

  • Clicking on the Awesome Bookmarks icon saves both the URL to the internal database and a snapshot to the Downloads directory (also accessible through the Downloads menu).
  • Opening an Awesome Bookmark, whether from the browser or from the OS both lead the user to (by default) the live version of the page, or (if the computer is not connected) to the snapshot.
  • Whenever visiting a page that has an Awesome Bookmark, the Awesome Bookmark icon changes color to offer the user the ability to switch between the live version or the snapshot.
  • The same page can be Awesome Bookmarked several times, offering the ability to switch between several snapshots.

By switching to Awesome Bookmarks, we have merged Saving, Bookmarking and the Read it Later list of Pocket. Actually, since Firefox already offers Sync and Social Sharing, we have just merged all the features of Pocket.

So we have removed collapsed items from our list into one.

Bookmarks are history are tiles

What are the differences between Bookmarks and History?

  1. History is recorded automatically, while Bookmarks need to be recorded manually.
  2. History is eventually forgotten, while Bookmarks are not.
  3. Bookmarks can be put in folders, History cannot.

Let’s keep doing almost that, but without segregating the views. Let us introduce a new view, the Awesome Pages, which will serve as a replacement for both Bookmarks Menu and the History Menu.

This view shows a grid of thumbnails of visited pages, iOS/Android/Firefox OS style.

  • first the pages visited most often during the past few hours (with the option of scrolling for all the pages visited during the past few hours);
  • then the Awesome Bookmarks (because, after all, the user has decided to mark these pages)/Awesome Bookmarks folders (with the option of scrolling for more favourites);
  • then, if the user has opted in for suggestions, a set of Awesome Suggested Tiles (with the option of scrolling for more suggestions);
  • then the pages visited the most often today (with the option of scrolling for the other pages visited today);
  • then the pages visited most often this week (with the option of scrolling for the other pages visited this week);

By default, clicking on an Awesome Bookmark (or history entry, or suggested page, etc.) for a page that is already opened switches to that page. Non-bookmarked pages can be turned into Awesome Bookmarks trivially, by starring them or putting them into folders.

An Awesome Bar at the top of this Awesome Pages lets users quickly search for pages and folders. This is the same Awesome Bar that is already at the top of tabs in today’s Firefox, just with the full-screen Awesome Pages replacing the current drop-down menu.

Oh, and by the way, this Awesome Pages is actually our new New Tab page.

By switching to the Awesome Pages, we have merged:

  • the history menu;
  • the bookmarks menu;
  • the new tab page;
  • the awesome bar.

Bookmarks are tabs are apps

What are the differences between Bookmarks and Tabs?

  1. Clicking on a bookmark opens the page by loading it, while clicking on a tab opens the page by switching to it.

That’s not much of a difference, is it?

So let’s make a few more changes to our UX:

  • Awesome Bookmarks record the state of the page, in the style of Session Restore, so clicking on an Awesome Bookmark actually restores that page, whenever possible, instead of reloading it;
  • The ribbon on top of the browser, which traditionally contains tabs, is actually a simplified display of the Awesome Pages, which shows, by default, the pages most often visited during the past few hours;
  • Whether clicking on a ribbon item switches to a page or restores it is an implementation detail, which depends on whether the browser has decided that unloading a page was a good idea for memory/CPU/battery usage;
  • Replace Panorama with the Awesome Page, without further change.

So, with a little imagination (and, I’ll admit, a little hand-waving), we have merged tabs and bookmarks. Interestingly, we have done that by moving to an Apps-like model, in which whether an application is loaded or not is for the OS to decide, rather than the user.

By the way, what are the differences between Tabs and Open Web Apps?

  1. Apps can be killed by the OS, while Tabs cannot.
  2. Apps are visible to the OS, while Tabs appear in the browser only.

Well, if we decide that Apps are just Bookmarks, since Bookmarks have been made visible to the OS in section 1., and since Bookmarks have just been merged with Tabs which have just been made killable by the browser, we have our Apps model.

We have just removed three more items from our list.

What’s left?

We are down to one higher-level abstraction (the Awesome Bookmark) and one view of it (the Awesome Page). Of course, if this is eventually released, we are certainly going to call both Persona.

This new Firefox is quite different from today’s Firefox. Actually, it looks much more like Firefox OS, which may be a good thing. While I realize that many of the details are handwavy (e.g. how do you open the same page twice simultaneously?), I believe that someone smarter than me can do great things with this preliminary exploration.

I would like to try that Firefox. Would you?

Re-dreaming Firefox (1): Firefox Agents

May 29, 2015 § 9 Comments

Gerv’s recent post on the Jeeves Test got me thinking of the Firefox of my dreams. So I decided to write down a few ideas on how I would like to experience the web. Today: Firefox Agents. Let me emphasise that the features described in this blog post do not exist.

Marcel uses Firefox every day, for quite a number of things.

  • He uses Firefox for fun, for watching videos and playing online games. For this purpose, he has installed a few tools for finding and downloading videos. Also, one of his main search engines is YouTube. Suggested movies? Sure, as long as they are fun.
  • He uses Firefox for social networks. He follows his friends, he searches on Facebook, or Twitter, or Google+. If anything looks fun, or useful, he’d like to be informed.
  • He uses Firefox for managing his bank accounts, his taxes, his health insurance. For this purpose, he has paranoid security settings – to avoid phishing, he can only browse to a few whitelisted websites – and no add-ons. He may be interested in getting information from these few websites, and in security updates, but that’s about it. Also, since Firefox handles all his passwords, it must itself be protected by a password.
  • He uses Firefox to read his Gmail account. And to read his other Gmail account. And he doesn’t want to leak privacy information by doing so on the same Firefox that he’s using for browsing.
  • Oh, and he may also be using Firefox for browsing websites that are sensitive for any kind of reason, whether he’s hunting for gifts for his close family, dating online, chatting with hackers, discussing politics, helping NGOs in sensitive parts of the globe, visiting BitTorrent trackers, consulting a physician through some online service, or, well, anything else that requires privacy. He’d like to perform such browsing with additional anonymity guarantees. This also means locking Firefox with a password.
  • Sometimes, his children or friends borrow his computer and use Firefox, too.

Of course, since Marcel brings his own device at (or from) work, that’s the same Firefox that he’s using for all of these tasks, and he’s probably even doing several of these tasks at the same time.

So, Marcel has a set of contradictory requirements, not to mention that each of his uses of Firefox needs to pass a distinct Jeeves Test. How do we keep him happy nevertheless?

Introducing Firefox Agents

In the rest of this post, I will be calling each of these uses of Firefox an Agent (if we ever implement this feature, it will, of course, be called Persona). Each Agent matches one way you use Firefox. While Firefox may be delivered with a predefined set of Agents, users can easily create new Agents. In the example, Marcel has his “Fun Agent”, his “Social Agent”, his “Work Agent”, etc.

Each Agent is unique and separate:

  • Each Agent has its own icon on Marcel’s menu/desktop/tablet/phone and task list.
  • Each Agent has its own visual identity, to make sure that work-related stuff doesn’t end up accidentally in the Fun Agent.
  • Each Agent has its own set of preferences, bookmarks, remembered passwords, cookies, cache, and add-ons.
  • Each website may be connected to a given Agent, so that links received through Gmail or through Thunderbird, for instance, automatically open with the right Agent.

As a consequence, any technology that can come bundled with Firefox to, for instance, provide search suggestions or any other kind of website suggestions is tied to an Agent. For instance, Marcel’s browsing a dating site, or shopping for shoes, or having religious activities will not be visible to any of his colleagues looking above his shoulder at his Work Agent, nor will it be tied to either of Marcel’s Gmail accounts. This greatly increases the chances of suggestion technologies passing the Jeeves Test.

Agents are also connected:

  • A menu in each Agent, as well as a keyboard shortcut, lets users quickly open/switch to other Agents.
  • When an Agent follows a link to a website that belongs to another Agent, the relevant Agent opens automatically.
  • Bookmarks may be pushed, on demand, from one Agent to another one.
  • Passwords may be pulled, on demand, from one Agent to another one.

How far are we from Agents?

Technologically speaking, Firefox Agents almost exist. Indeed, Firefox has supported Profiles forever, since way before Firefox 1.0. I generally have three instances of Firefox opened at the same time (four when I’m doing web development), and it works nicely.

With a few add-ons, you can get almost everything, although not entirely connected together:

  • Profilist helps a lot with switching between profiles, and the dev version adds distinct icons;
  • Firefox Themes implement distinct appearances;
  • there are add-ons implementing whitelist browsing;
  • there are add-ons implementing password-protected Firefox.

A few features are missing, but as you can see, the list is actually quite short:

  • Pushing/pulling passwords and bookmarks between Agents (although that’s a subset of what Firefox Accounts can do).
  • Attaching specific websites to specific Agents (although this doesn’t seem too difficult to implement).
  • Connecting this all together.

What now?

I would like to browse with this Firefox. Would you?

Detecting slow add-ons

May 6, 2015 § 11 Comments

When it is at its best, Firefox is fast. Really, really fast. When things start slowing down, though, using Firefox is much less fun. So, one of main objectives of the developers of Firefox is making sure that Firefox is and remains as smooth and responsive as humanly possible. There is, however, one thing that can slow down Firefox, and that remains out of the control of the developers: add-ons. Good add-ons are extraordinary, but small coding errors – or sometimes necessary hacks – can quickly drive the performance of Firefox into the ground.

So, how can an add-on developer (or add-on reviewer) find out whether her add-on is fast? Sadly, not much. Testing certainly helps, and the Profiler is invaluable to help pinpoint a slowdown once it has been noticed, but what about the performance of add-ons in everyday use? What about the experience of users?

To solve this issue, we decided to work on a set of tools to help add-on developers and reviewers find out the performance of their add-ons. Oh, and also to let users find out quickly if an add-on is slowing down their everyday experience.

about:performance

On recent Nightly builds of Firefox, you may now open about:performance to get an overview of the performance cost of add-ons and webpages :

Screen Shot 2015-05-06 at 17.46.15

The main resources we monitor are :

  • jank, which measures how much the add-on impacts the responsiveness of Firefox. For 60fps performance, jank should always remain ≤ 4. If an add-on regularly causes jank to increase past 6, you should be worried.
  • CPOW aka blocking cross-process communications, which measures how much the add-on is causing Firefox to freeze waiting for a process to respond. Anything above 0 is bad.

Note that the design of this page is far from stable. I realise it’s not very user-friendly at the moment, so don’t hesitate to file bugs to help us improve it. Also note that, when running with e10s, the page doesn’t display all the useful information. We are working on it.

add-on Telemetry

Add-on developers and reviewers can now find information on the performance of their add-ons on a dedicated dashboard.

These are real-world performance data, as extracted from user’s computers. The two histograms available for the time being are:

  • MISBEHAVING_ADDONS_JANK_LEVEL, which measures the jank, as detailed above;
  • MISBEHAVING_ADDONS_CPOW_TIME_MS, which measure the amount of time spent in CPOW, as detailed above.

If you are an add-on developer, you should monitor regularly the performance of your add-on on this page. If you notice suspicious values, you should try and find out what causes these performance issues. Don’t hesitate and reach out to us, we will try and help you.

Slow add-on Notification

Add-on developers and reviewers, as well as end-users, are now informed when an add-on causes either jank or CPOW performance issues:

Screen Shot 2015-05-06 at 19.16.19

Note that this feature is not ready to ride the trains, and we do not have a specific idea of when it will be made available for users of Aurora/DeveloperEdition. This is partly because the UX is not good enough yet, partly because the thresholds will certainly change, and partly because we want to give add-on developers time to fix any issue before the users see a dialog that suggest that an add-on should be uninstalled.

Performance Stats API

By the way, we have an API for accessing performance stats. Very imaginatively, it’s called PerformanceStats.jsm [link]. While this API will still change during the coming weeks you can start playing with it if you are interested. Some add-ons may be able to throttle their performance use based on this data. Also, I hope that, in time, someone will be able to write a version of about:performance much nicer than mine :)

Challenges and work ahead

For the moment, we are in the process of stabilizing the API, its implementation and its performance. In parallel, we are working on making the UX of about:performance more useful. Once both are done, we are going to proceed with adding more measurements, making the code more e10s-friendly and measuring the performance of webpages.

If you are an add-on developer and if you feel that your add-on is tagged as slow by error, or if you have great ideas on how to make this data useful, feel free to ping me, preferably on IRC. You can find me on irc.mozilla.org, channel #developers, where I am Yoric.

Je Suis Charlie, but I Am Vigilant

January 13, 2015 § 2 Comments

(This text has initially been written for the French-speaking Mozilla Community. Most members of the community haven’t had a chance to review or sign it yet.)

20150108_144913

I am Charlie. Some of us grew up with Cabu’s children cartoons or Wolinkski’s willies. Some of us laughed at Charb’s cover pages, others much less, and yet others had never even heard of Charlie Hebdo. Despite our differences, from the bottom of our heart, we are with those who defend Free Speech, the right to discuss, draw, make laugh or cringe.

I am a Cop. Some among us work directly with law enforcement, or ensure the online safety of individuals or organizations. Some of us make their voice heard when legal or executive powers around the world decide that security, convenience or economic interests matter more than the rights of users. All, we salute the police officers murdered or wounded these last few days as they attempted to save innocents.

I am Jew, or Muslim, or Anything else. Some among us are Jew, or Muslim, or Christian, or anything else, and, frankly, most of us don’t care who is what. All, we are horrified that, in the 21st century, extremists may still decide to murder innocents, solely because they might be Jew, and because they had decided to go the grocery store. All, we are appalled that, in the 21st century, extremists may still decide to attack innocents, just because they might be Muslems, through threats, physical violence or through their places of cult. All, we are shocked whenever opportunists praise murders or violence, or call for hatred or the ones or the others.

I am Collateral. Before we are the Mozilla Community, we are a community of individuals. Any one of us could have been at the front desk of this building, or on the path of that car, hostage or collateral kill of the assassins. Our minute of silence is for the anonymous ones, too.

I am Vigilant. Some of us believe that strong and immediate measures must be taken. Others prefer to wait until the emotion has passed before we can think of an appropriate response. All, we wait to see how the attacks of January 7th and January 9th 2015 will change our society. All, we remain vigilant, to make sure that, on top of the blood of the dead, our society does not choose to sacrifice Human Rights, Free Speech and Privacy, in the name of a securitarian ideology or opportunistic economical interests.

I am the French-speaking Mozilla Community.


Text edited by myself. List of signatures of the French version.

Je Suis Charlie

January 7, 2015 § Leave a comment

Charlie

Vous souhaitez apprendre à développer des Logiciels Libres ?

November 29, 2014 § Leave a comment

Cette année, la Communauté Mozilla propose à Paris un cycle de Cours/TDs autour du Développement de Logiciels Libres.

Au programme :

  • comment se joindre à un projet existant ;
  • comment communiquer dans une équipe distribuée ;
  • comment financer un projet de logiciel libre ;
  • qualité du code ;
  • du code !
  • (et beaucoup plus).

Pour plus de détails, et pour vous inscrire, tout est ici.

Attention, les cours commencent le 8 décembre !

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